Between April and July 1994, one of the largest atrocities of the 20th century occurred: the genocide of 800 000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus during the civil war in Rwanda. The country was inhabited by around 8 million people. This emphasizes the massive aspect of these slaughters. When the RPF finally took power in July and declared a ceasefire, it triggered the exodus of two million Hutus to Zaire. These refugees included many who have since been implicated in the massacres. UN troops and aid workers arrived to help maintain order and restore basic services. UN troops left Rwanda in 1996. Considering that the new government was not a danger for them anymore, the refugees came back gradually. But although the massacres are over, the legacy of the genocide continues, and the search for justice has been a long and arduous one. Thus, more than 10 years after the conflict, the question of justice is still unresolved, and many victims are still waiting for justice.
[...] Ndamage Vénant (2004), Rwanda: auto reconciliation et droits citoyens, L'Harmattan. Mujawayo Esther and Belhaddad Souâd (2006), La Fleur de Stéphanie, Rwanda entre réconciliation et déni, Flammarion. Filmography Aghion Anne (2002) Gacaca, revivre ensemble au Rwanda. Bellefroid Bernard (2005), Rwanda les collines parlent. Sommer Tom (2005), Rwanda, vivre la réconciliation. BBC News: How the genocide happened. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1288230.stm. Rwanda is now populated by 9.91 millions people, on MSN Encarta http://fr.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761560996_2/Rwanda.html Persons in charge of the Radio Television Libre des Mille Collines, a radio that enjoined to kill Tutsis during the genocide. [...]
[...] The Amnesty International report on justice in Rwanda underscores that the Tribunal is dependent on the cooperation of the Rwandese state. The Rwandese government expressed its intention to support the ICTR and cooperate with its work despite its vote against the Tribunal's establishment. Nonetheless, relations between the ICTR and the Rwandese government have been strained. The Rwandese government was aggravated by the initial slowness with which the Tribunal was established and its apparent lack of determination to pursue the main architects of the 1994 genocide. [...]
[...] Bibliography Amnesty International report (2002), Gacaca: a question of justice. Digneffe Françoise et Fierens Jacques (2003), Justice et gacaca, L'expérience rwandaise et le génocide, Presses Universitaires de Namur. Essoungou André-Michel (2006), Justice à Arusha, l'Harmattan, Hatzfeld Jean (2003), Une saison de machettes, Seuil. Hatzfeld Jean (2004) Rwanda: Un pardon pour l'instant impossible Entretien avec Jean Hatzfeld dans Croire Aujourd'hui, numéro janvier 2004, p Human Rights Watch report (January 2007), Killings in Eastern Rwanda. Kamanzi Michel S (2005). Rwanda: quelle réconciliation? [...]
[...] It has at times similarly blocked the prosecution's access to witnesses during trials. In January 2002 Rwandese genocide survivor groups, IBUKA and AVEGA refused to cooperate with the Tribunal, stating that their members would not testify before "people who ridicule us and treat our suffering as a banality." Both the ICTR and the Rwandese government have sought custody over the same suspects. Relations deteriorated badly in 1996 when the ICTR gained custody of several suspected key leaders of the genocide that had been detained in the Cameroon and for whom the Rwandese government had issued arrest warrants. [...]
[...] It was a quite similar process to what happened for the setting up of the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia. It is the first tribunal in the history that is trying to judge genocide. Neither Nuremberg nor the ICTY had been so far. So far, the Tribunal has finished 21 trials and convicted 28 accused persons. Another 11 trials are in progress individuals are awaiting trial in detention; but the prosecutor intends to transfer 5 to national jurisdiction for trial others are still at large, some suspected to be dead. [...]
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