The President of India is the head of State as the first citizen of India, and has therefore an important role to play in the political system. He has special duties and powers, which give him importance in the Indian political life. This function first appeared with the Indian Constitution that was adopted on 26 January 1950. But the role of the President comes from a parliamentary tradition set up by the British rulers with different Acts and Charts. Its creation was not solely due to the Constitution.
[...] Apart of this right he can send messages to the Houses, which has to be considerate by the House, even if it did not happen, since there is a President in India. The President has also the right to nominate Members to the Council of States members to be precise, who have a special knowledge or practical experience of literature, science, art and social service (Art. 80). A Bill becomes an Act only with the President's signature; he has to give his assent for it. But the President has a Veto power, and can decide to withhold his assent. [...]
[...] In case of a temporary vacancy, if the President is not able to assume his functions, due to his absence of India, illness and the Vice President acts as the President till he resumes his duties (Art. 65). The procedure of impeachment (Art. 56) is the only way for a President to be removed from his office, but only in case of violation of the Constitution (Art. 61). The procedure may start in either of the two Houses of the Parliament, which has to present a notice, containing the charges against the President. This notice has to be signed by at least one quarter of the total members of the House. [...]
[...] If the second House approves the charges, by a two-third majority, the President stands impeachment, and has to remove from his office, from the date when the resolution is passed. But the President would not have to face any other penalty for the violation of the Constitution. The President cannot be removed by any other way than impeachment, and actually no President has faced this procedure, and these provisions have never been tested. As said in the Constitution, the executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President (Art. he is then the head of the executive power in India. [...]
[...] Nevertheless it can be extended by six months by repeated parliamentary approval. In such an emergency, the Fundamental Rights of Indian citizens can be suspended; the six freedoms under Right to Freedom are automatically suspended. However, the Right to Life and Personal Liberty cannot be suspended, even in such a situation of National Emergency. The President has also the power to declare a State Emergency, also known as President's Rule, when the Government of a State cannot be carried on in accordance with the Constitution. [...]
[...] The President has also Military Powers; he is the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces, even if this power is regulated by law (Art. which means that the Parliament is there to regulate and control the exercise of this power. He is only the one who decide the expenditure of money of the Defence Forces, but the again, the Parliament is there to regulate this prerogative. The Diplomatic Powers of the President are a wide subject, and even if, as for the most of the President's powers, the final power is vested in Parliament, the Legislature cannot take the initiative by itself, and those are finally viewed as the powers of the President. [...]
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