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 Judicial review

Judicial review

  

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20 Jan 2010

Judicial Power: A third and co-equal branch, judicial review and independence

Dissertation de 3 pages - Droit constitutionnel

In the Constitution, the Supreme Court's specificity finds its origin in the adaptation of the British Common Law's legacy to the American federalism. And, the law's superiority or the 'Rule of Law' implies a strong Judicial System. Indeed, the United States seems to consider the Law as a...

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28 Nov 2009

To what extent judicial intuitionism affects the judge's legal reasoning in Common Law?

Dissertation de 6 pages - Droit international

The recent nomination of Judge Sonia Sotomayor by President Obama sparked once again the political debate on the objectivity of the appointed to the United States Supreme Court. Republicans, even though pretending to be unbiased, started to fear that this Obamanian judge would undermine President...

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10 Mai 2010

Public international law - the problems associated with the proliferation of international judicial bodies

Dissertation de 7 pages - Droit international

Since the end of the Cold War, a new phenomenon in international law has surfaced: the proliferation of international judicial bodies as a consequence of the increasing number of treaties. More than just a numeral observation, there have been changes concerning the nature and competences...

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21 Fév 2011

Contract Law : A review

Fiche de 8 pages - Droit civil

What is a Contract? A contract is a legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties with mutual obligations. It’s essentially a case law subject, i.e.,interpretations are made by judges while deciding on the legal issues....

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19 Juin 2009

The U.S. supreme court: powers and limits

Dissertation de 2 pages - Droit international

Article III of the United States Constitution was the first to provide for a federal judiciary, namely the Supreme Court. The power of this Court was detailed and enshrined in the Constitution by the Founding Fathers. However, its authority has since been widely extended by the power of...

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10 Juil 2009

The installation of a phone mast near a school

Dissertation de 6 pages - Droit civil

Peter is single and is employed by the Lobby Group Ltd., a professional, "non-profit" company that acts as a general lobby group for industrialists. Last year he moved to live in a town close to his place of employment. He discovered that the local green field site, adjoining the village primary...

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10 Déc 2009

The judiciary in the US political system

Dissertation de 3 pages - Droit constitutionnel

The Constitution provides that federal judges, including judges of the Supreme Court of the United States, are appointed by the President "by and with the advice and consent of the Senate." In 1803, the power of Judicial Review in the U.S. Supreme Court was established with the case...

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19 Juin 2009

Evaluate the Importance of the Supreme Court in the US Political System: In What Ways Is It a Political Actor?

Dissertation de 5 pages - Droit constitutionnel

The Supreme Court, the highest court in the American judicial system, is one of the three branches of the US national government. In 1803, a mechanism was put in place to ensure that governmental officials and governmental institutions would respect the limitations prescribed in the...

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18 Jan 2010

English Legal System : The Administration of England and Wales

Cours de 93 pages - Droit autres branches

We'll study the administration of justice in England and Wales. Scotland has it's own courts and system. Civil and criminal justice have come close to each other. They must be treated separately because they are very different in particular in the point of view of appeals and the procedure. Many...

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25 Mar 2013

Kompetenz-Kompetenz

étude de cas de 2 pages - Droit autres branches

The kompetenz-kompetenz doctrine is generally understood as the arbitral tribunal’s authority to rule on the scope, validity and existence of the arbitration agreement if any of these are challenged, and thereby to rule essentially also on its own jurisdiction. Although under this doctrine...

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19 Mai 2008

Le contrôle de constitutionnalité des lois aux Etats Unis

Dissertation de 21 pages - Droit constitutionnel

Traitant des juges, Eugène V. Rostow déclare au début des années 1960 : « Leurs décisions peuvent ( … ) s’avérer, avec l’appui de la sagesse après coup, avoir été justes ou fausses, - une participation créative ou erronée d’un principe jusqu’alors insensé ». C’est...

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08 Fév 2007

Le contrôle de constitutionnalité aux Etats-Unis (2007)

Dissertation de 5 pages - Droit constitutionnel

On peut définir le contrôle de constitutionnalité aux Etats-Unis comme le système dans lequel tout juge peut statuer sur toute inconstitutionnalité qui lui est présentée. C’est le pouvoir de judicial review. Ce n’est pas un pouvoir de révision ni d’annulation car le...

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23 Jan 2007

How do the Federal Republic of Germany, Fifth Republic France and post-war Italy fulfil the criteria of Lijphart's 'majoritarian' and 'consensus' models of democracies?

Dissertation de 5 pages - Droit constitutionnel

This essay will attempt to analyse the Federal Republic of Germany, Fifth Republic France and post-war Italy thanks to Lijphart’s work Democracy (1984). Lijphart classifies the ‘majoritarian’ model (or ‘Westminster model’) and the ‘consensual model’, in function...

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10 Mai 2010

Les enjeux de l'introduction d'une procédure d'exception d'inconstitutionnalité

Dissertation de 10 pages - Droit constitutionnel

Selon François Luchaire : « il sera difficile à notre pays de différer trop longtemps une garantie que reconnaissent aujourd’hui tous les pays qui acceptent le contrôle de constitutionnalité des lois ». Ainsi, la situation du contrôle de constitutionnalité français ne serait plus tenable au...

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28 Avr 2008

European union law

Dissertation de 4 pages - Droit autres branches

According to the European Court of Justice, the ability to review the legality of Community Acts is a part of "the complete system of legal remedies and procedures designed to permit the Court of Justice to review the legality of measures adopted by the institutions". Following...

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17 Juil 2008

Cours complet d'introduction au droit anglais

Cours de 87 pages - Histoire du droit

Egalement, il s'agit d'une méthodologie différente et une logique différente. La logique juridique est distincte du système français.Du point de vue extérieur, le droit français est divisé en deux parties : droit public et droit privé, droit commun et droit d'exception, droit général et droit...

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17 Fév 2018

Les modèles de justice constitutionnelle américaine et européenne - droit constitutionnel comparé

Cours de 4 pages - Droit constitutionnel

Lorsqu’on modélise le droit ou les institutions, on suppose que ce qu’on observe dans la réalité juridique aurait vocation à être transposé dans d’autres systèmes. Par conséquent, parler de justice constitutionnelle suppose une transposition, mais aussi des déclinaisons à partir du...

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08 Déc 2009

International Criminal Court

Cours de 19 pages - Droit international

The International Criminal Court (ICC) is the only independent and permanent court which deals with the most serious crimes committed by people, which are genocide, crime of aggression, war crimes and crimes against humanity. The ICCs based on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court...

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17 Jan 2010

English legal system: the Sources of English Law

Cours de 87 pages - Droit constitutionnel

The judicial decisions are the first to be found to develop a system. Today, they are still influencing the system as a whole. Judicial decisions have a weight that their continental counter part does not have. In England, under certain requirements, decisions are biding the judge...

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15 Juin 2012

Can constitutional courts be characterized as policy makers?

étude de cas de 8 pages - Droit de la concurrence

The theme of political role of judges is an old one in the literature of democratic countries. Indeed, Alexis de Tocqueville already tackled the “political importance” of the courts in his famous Democracy in America (1835). The reason is that there is inevitably, in modern democracies,...

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25 Avr 2008

Essay on the separation of powers in Europe - A comparative study

Dissertation de 23 pages - Droit européen

“Each country must find a solution which is sensitive to its domestic culture” …this is the position of Lord Irvine of Lairg on the separation of powers. This can be regarded as a politically correct position on a very discussed topic in that it does not take part in the animated...

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26 Jan 2009

Courts, unelected tyrants and public forums

Dissertation de 6 pages - Droit constitutionnel

In 2000, during the American presidential elections, the role of the Supreme Court was highly contested. Indeed, it consists of a majority of judges appointed by republican presidents and it decided to stop counting the voices manually in contested towns in Florida and George Bush won the...

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04 Fév 2010

To what degree does the Supreme Court have a 'political' role? And in what 'political' direction have the most recent courts taken the Supreme Court?

étude de cas de 6 pages - Droit international

The judiciary, from the nature of its functions, will always be the least dangerous' in the department of power. This opinion, formulated by Alexander Hamilton in the Federalist papers, relies on a restrictive vision of the role of judges, considered as 'mouths of the law'. According to this...

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25 Mar 2009

"The State of exception" in France and the United Kingdom

Dissertation de 4 pages - Libertés publiques

The concept of state of exception belongs to the legal theory of Carl Schmitt. It is concerned by the state of emergencies based on the sovereign's ability to transcend the rule of law for or at least in the name of the public good. In the United Kingdom and France, the state of exception allows...

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25 Déc 2007

Légitimité de la juridiction constitutionnelle : système britannique et système continental

Dissertation de 5 pages - Droit européen

« Le contrôle de constitutionnalité français est robuste, rapide, plus respectueux de la démocratie représentative et moins déstabilisateur pour le droit positif ». Sûrement l’ancien président du Conseil constitutionnel Pierre Mazeaud avait à cœur de rendre hommage, à l’heure où il...

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11 Oct 2000

The New Constitutionalism

Dissertation de 5 pages - Droit européen

This essay is divided in two parts. In the first section, we will describe the influence of the European court of Justice on the evolution as observed by Weiler. In the latter half of the essay, we will try to view this theory from a critical bent of mind and relate this concept as an...

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31 Jan 2010

Is the adversarial system of criminal procedure more or less effective than an inquisitorial system in finding out the truth about an alleged offence? Advantages and disadvantages of adversarial and inquisitorial criminal procedure

Dissertation de 7 pages - Procédure pénale

As early as 1866, Faustin Helie, a French judge and legal author, underlined the idea of a necessary equilibrium between the interests of the society (which needs to be protected from infringements) and the interests of the accused persons (whose rights must be totally guaranteed) in the criminal...

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29 Mai 2010

Primacy / Supremacy of European Community Law against Sovereignty of the Member States

Mémoire de 25 pages - Droit européen

Today the European Union (EU) consists of 27 Member States; it reaches from the Atlantic coast of Western Europe all the way to the Black Sea of Eastern Europe. In the European Union, the most important and closest collaboration between the Member States happens via the European Community (EC)....

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08 Août 2005

The role (present and future) of the European Court of Justice in the protection of asylum-seekers in the European Union

Dissertation de 13 pages - Droit international

The European Court of Justice has laid down a legal Act pertaining to the judicial protection towards asylum seekers. However, this act is not completely flawless. Even if all the Member States ratify the new constitution and it be made effective thereafter, the future of the asylum...

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27 Nov 2007

Vienna Convention on consular relations

Commentaire d'arrêt de 9 pages - Droit international

THE HAGUE, 10 March 2005. Today the International Court of Justice, the principal judicial organ of the United Nations, delivered its Judgment in the case concerning Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (Paraguay v. United States of America). On 3 April 1998, the Republic of Paraguay...