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Thème juridique : Judicial review

Judicial review

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20 Janv. 2010
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Judicial Power: A third and co-equal branch, judicial review and independence

Dissertation - 3 pages - Droit constitutionnel

In the Constitution, the Supreme Court's specificity finds its origin in the adaptation of the British Common Law's legacy to the American federalism. And, the law's superiority or the 'Rule of Law' implies a strong Judicial System. Indeed, the United States seems to...

28 févr. 2022

Le dialogue des pouvoirs aux États-Unis

Dissertation - 6 pages - Droit constitutionnel

Les États-Unis d'Amérique ont connu fin 2018 et début 2019 le plus long shutdown de toute l'histoire. Le shutdown est un blocage administratif et politique résultant d'un désaccord budgétaire entre le pouvoir exécutif soit le Président américain, et le pouvoir législatif...

07 juin 2023

Lettre à Mr. Jarvis - Thomas Jefferson (1859) - Quelle est l'étendue des compétences du juge à l'égard des normes « suprêmes » au sein de l'ordre interne ?

Commentaire de texte - 3 pages - Droit constitutionnel

À l'instar de la France, les États-Unis se sont affranchis du régime monarchique de la métropole britannique à l'issue de la guerre d'indépendance de 1775. Celle-ci fut formalisée par la déclaration d'indépendance dont Thomas Jefferson fut le principal rédacteur. Cette...

03 Oct. 2018
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La Cour suprême des États-Unis : une juridiction inconditionnée ?

Dissertation - 5 pages - Droit international

Dès 1835, Tocqueville affirmait dans son ouvrage De la démocratie en Amérique, que ce "qu'un étranger comprend avec le plus de peine aux États-Unis, c'est l'organisation judiciaire. Il n'y a pour ainsi dire pas d'événement politique dans lequel il n'entende invoquer...

21 févr. 2018
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Les modèles de justice constitutionnelle américaine et européenne - droit constitutionnel comparé

Cours - 4 pages - Droit constitutionnel

Lorsqu'on modélise le droit ou les institutions, on suppose que ce qu'on observe dans la réalité juridique aurait vocation à être transposé dans d'autres systèmes. Par conséquent, parler de justice constitutionnelle suppose une transposition, mais aussi des déclinaisons à partir du modèle dans la...

10 mai 2010
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Public international law - the problems associated with the proliferation of international judicial bodies

Dissertation - 7 pages - Droit international

Since the end of the Cold War, a new phenomenon in international law has surfaced: the proliferation of international judicial bodies as a consequence of the increasing number of treaties. More than just a numeral observation, there have been changes concerning the nature and competences...

21 févr. 2011
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Contract Law : A review

Fiche - 8 pages - Droit civil

What is a Contract? A contract is a legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties with mutual obligations. It's essentially a case law subject, i.e.,interpretations are made by judges while deciding on the legal issues....

28 Nov. 2009
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To what extent judicial intuitionism affects the judge's legal reasoning in Common Law?

Dissertation - 6 pages - Droit international

The recent nomination of Judge Sonia Sotomayor by President Obama sparked once again the political debate on the objectivity of the appointed to the United States Supreme Court. Republicans, even though pretending to be unbiased, started to fear that this Obamanian judge would undermine President...

11 Mars 2024

Cour suprême des États-Unis, 24 février 1803, Marbury v/Madison - Comment cet arrêt a-t-il contribué à rendre la Cour Suprême garante du respect de la Constitution ?

Commentaire d'arrêt - 3 pages - Droit constitutionnel

L'arrêt Marbury v Madison consacre un des freins mis en place pour assurer la séparation des pouvoirs, le principe constitutionnaliste fondamental selon lequel le pouvoir des gouvernants doit être séparé en trois branches distinctes : une branche législative qui rédige et vote les lois, une...

25 Mars 2013
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Kompetenz-Kompetenz

Étude de cas - 2 pages - Droit autres branches

The kompetenz-kompetenz doctrine is generally understood as the arbitral tribunal's authority to rule on the scope, validity and existence of the arbitration agreement if any of these are challenged, and thereby to rule essentially also on its own jurisdiction. Although under this doctrine there...

10 juil. 2009
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The installation of a phone mast near a school

Dissertation - 6 pages - Droit civil

Peter is single and is employed by the Lobby Group Ltd., a professional, "non-profit" company that acts as a general lobby group for industrialists. Last year he moved to live in a town close to his place of employment. He discovered that the local green field site, adjoining the village primary...

10 déc. 2009
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The judiciary in the US political system

Dissertation - 3 pages - Droit constitutionnel

The Constitution provides that federal judges, including judges of the Supreme Court of the United States, are appointed by the President "by and with the advice and consent of the Senate." In 1803, the power of Judicial Review in the U.S. Supreme Court was established with the case...

19 juin 2009
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The U.S. supreme court: powers and limits

Dissertation - 2 pages - Droit international

Article III of the United States Constitution was the first to provide for a federal judiciary, namely the Supreme Court. The power of this Court was detailed and enshrined in the Constitution by the Founding Fathers. However, its authority has since been widely extended by the power of...

19 mai 2008
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Le contrôle de constitutionnalité des lois aux Etats Unis

Dissertation - 21 pages - Droit constitutionnel

Traitant des juges, Eugène V. Rostow déclare au début des années 1960 : « Leurs décisions peuvent ( … ) s'avérer, avec l'appui de la sagesse après coup, avoir été justes ou fausses, - une participation créative ou erronée d'un principe jusqu'alors insensé ». C'est ainsi que le contrôle de...

19 juin 2009
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Evaluate the Importance of the Supreme Court in the US Political System: In What Ways Is It a Political Actor?

Dissertation - 5 pages - Droit constitutionnel

The Supreme Court, the highest court in the American judicial system, is one of the three branches of the US national government. In 1803, a mechanism was put in place to ensure that governmental officials and governmental institutions would respect the limitations prescribed in the...

10 mai 2010
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Les enjeux de l'introduction d'une procédure d'exception d'inconstitutionnalité

Dissertation - 10 pages - Droit constitutionnel

Selon François Luchaire : « il sera difficile à notre pays de différer trop longtemps une garantie que reconnaissent aujourd'hui tous les pays qui acceptent le contrôle de constitutionnalité des lois ». Ainsi, la situation du contrôle de constitutionnalité français ne serait plus tenable au...

08 févr. 2007
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Le contrôle de constitutionnalité aux Etats-Unis (2007)

Dissertation - 5 pages - Droit constitutionnel

On peut définir le contrôle de constitutionnalité aux Etats-Unis comme le système dans lequel tout juge peut statuer sur toute inconstitutionnalité qui lui est présentée. C'est le pouvoir de judicial review. Ce n'est pas un pouvoir de révision ni d'annulation car le juge ne révise...

23 Janv. 2007
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How do the Federal Republic of Germany, Fifth Republic France and post-war Italy fulfil the criteria of Lijphart's 'majoritarian' and 'consensus' models of democracies?

Dissertation - 5 pages - Droit constitutionnel

This essay will attempt to analyse the Federal Republic of Germany, Fifth Republic France and post-war Italy thanks to Lijphart's work Democracy (1984). Lijphart classifies the ‘majoritarian' model (or ‘Westminster model') and the ‘consensual model', in function of specific...

18 Janv. 2010
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English Legal System : The Administration of England and Wales

Cours - 93 pages - Droit autres branches

We'll study the administration of justice in England and Wales. Scotland has it's own courts and system. Civil and criminal justice have come close to each other. They must be treated separately because they are very different in particular in the point of view of appeals and the...

15 juin 2012
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Can constitutional courts be characterized as policy makers?

Étude de cas - 8 pages - Droit de la concurrence

The theme of political role of judges is an old one in the literature of democratic countries. Indeed, Alexis de Tocqueville already tackled the “political importance” of the courts in his famous Democracy in America (1835). The reason is that there is inevitably, in modern democracies,...

17 Janv. 2010
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English legal system: the Sources of English Law

Cours - 87 pages - Droit constitutionnel

The judicial decisions are the first to be found to develop a system. Today, they are still influencing the system as a whole. Judicial decisions have a weight that their continental counter part does not have. In England, under certain requirements, decisions are biding the judge...

25 avril 2008
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Essay on the separation of powers in Europe - A comparative study

Dissertation - 23 pages - Droit européen

“Each country must find a solution which is sensitive to its domestic culture” …this is the position of Lord Irvine of Lairg on the separation of powers. This can be regarded as a politically correct position on a very discussed topic in that it does not take part in the animated...

26 Janv. 2009
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Courts, unelected tyrants and public forums

Dissertation - 6 pages - Droit constitutionnel

In 2000, during the American presidential elections, the role of the Supreme Court was highly contested. Indeed, it consists of a majority of judges appointed by republican presidents and it decided to stop counting the voices manually in contested towns in Florida and George Bush won the...

04 févr. 2010
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To what degree does the Supreme Court have a 'political' role? And in what 'political' direction have the most recent courts taken the Supreme Court?

Étude de cas - 6 pages - Droit international

The judiciary, from the nature of its functions, will always be the least dangerous' in the department of power. This opinion, formulated by Alexander Hamilton in the Federalist papers, relies on a restrictive vision of the role of judges, considered as 'mouths of the law'. According...

28 avril 2008
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European union law

Dissertation - 4 pages - Droit autres branches

According to the European Court of Justice, the ability to review the legality of Community Acts is a part of "the complete system of legal remedies and procedures designed to permit the Court of Justice to review the legality of measures adopted by the institutions". Following...

29 mai 2010
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Primacy / Supremacy of European Community Law against Sovereignty of the Member States

Mémoire - 25 pages - Droit européen

Today the European Union (EU) consists of 27 Member States; it reaches from the Atlantic coast of Western Europe all the way to the Black Sea of Eastern Europe. In the European Union, the most important and closest collaboration between the Member States happens via the European Community (EC)....

25 Mars 2009
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"The State of exception" in France and the United Kingdom

Dissertation - 4 pages - Libertés publiques

The concept of state of exception belongs to the legal theory of Carl Schmitt. It is concerned by the state of emergencies based on the sovereign's ability to transcend the rule of law for or at least in the name of the public good. In the United Kingdom and France, the state of exception...

19 mai 2010
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The European Court of Justice and the rule of Precedent

Dissertation - 5 pages - Droit européen

The rule of precedent is the legal principle under which judges have to follow the judgments established previously by upper courts. The Latin translation of "stare decisis" gives an unequivocal definition of the concept as it means "to stand by that which is decided". Precedent underpins the...

27 Nov. 2007
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Vienna Convention on consular relations

Commentaire d'arrêt - 9 pages - Droit international

THE HAGUE, 10 March 2005. Today the International Court of Justice, the principal judicial organ of the United Nations, delivered its Judgment in the case concerning Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (Paraguay v. United States of America). On 3 April 1998, the Republic of Paraguay...

08 août 2005
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The role (present and future) of the European Court of Justice in the protection of asylum-seekers in the European Union

Dissertation - 13 pages - Droit international

The European Court of Justice has laid down a legal Act pertaining to the judicial protection towards asylum seekers. However, this act is not completely flawless. Even if all the Member States ratify the new constitution and it be made effective thereafter, the future of the asylum...